Electoral system

Don Lemon to Florida: Figure it out Poll of the week:

Electoral system

Plurality systems[ edit ] Countries using first-past-the-post for legislatures. Plurality voting is a system in which the candidate s with the highest amount of vote wins, with no requirement to get a majority of votes.

In cases where there is a single position to be filled, it is known as first-past-the-post ; this is the second most common electoral system for national legislatures, with 58 countries using it to elect their legislatures, [1] the vast majority of which are current or former British or American colonies or territories.

Electoral system

It is also the second most common system used for presidential elections, being used in 19 countries. This is used in five countries as part of mixed systems. First preference votes are counted as whole numbers; the second preference votes divided by two, third preferences by three; this continues to the lowest possible ranking.

There are two main forms of majoritarian systems, one using a single round of ranked voting and the other using two or more rounds. Both are primarily used for single-member constituencies. Majoritarian voting can take place in a single round using instant-runoff voting IRVwhereby voters rank candidates in order of preference; this system is used for parliamentary elections in Australia and Papua New Guinea.

If no candidate receives a majority of the vote in the first round, the second preferences of the lowest-ranked candidate are then added to the totals.

If not all voters use all their preference votes, then the count may continue until two candidates remain, at which point the winner is the one with the most votes. A modified form of IRV is the contingent vote where voters do not rank all candidates, but have a limited number of preference votes.

If no candidate has a majority in the first round, all candidates are excluded except the top two, with the highest remaining preference votes from the votes for the excluded candidates then added to the totals to determine the winner.

This system is used in Sri Lankan presidential elections, with voters allowed to give three preferences. It is also used in 20 countries for electing the legislature.

In most cases the second round is limited to the top two candidates from the first round, although in some elections more than two candidates may choose to contest the second round; in these cases the second round is decided by plurality voting.

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An exhaustive ballot is not limited to two rounds, but sees the last-placed candidate eliminated in the round of voting.

Due to the large potential number of rounds, this system is not used in any major popular elections, but is used to elect the Speakers of parliament in several countries and members of the Swiss Federal Council.

In some formats there may be multiple rounds held without any candidates being removed until a candidate achieves a majority, a system used in the United States Electoral College. Proportional systems[ edit ] Countries by type of proportional system Proportional representation is the most widely used electoral system for national legislatures, with the parliaments of over eighty countries elected by various forms of the system.

Party-list proportional representation is the single most common electoral system and is used by 80 countries, and involves voters voting for a list of candidates proposed by a party.

In closed list systems voters do not have any influence over the candidates put forward by the party, but in open list systems voters are able to both vote for the party list and influence the order in which candidates will be assigned seats. In some countries, notably Israel and the Netherlandselections are carried out using 'pure' proportional representation, with the votes tallied on a national level before assigning seats to parties.

However, in most cases several multi-member constituencies are used rather than a single nationwide constituency, giving an element of geographical representation.Electoral system: Electoral system, Method and rules of counting votes to determine the outcome of elections.

Winners may be determined by a plurality, a majority (more than 50% of the vote), an extraordinary majority (a percentage of the vote greater than 50%), or . The desired outcomes of an ideal electoral system were discussed, and included proportionality, representation, responsibility, influence of voters, stable government, accountability and .

Parallel Systems: An electoral system in which each voter gets two votes: one for a candidate in a local constituency and another for party. A fraction of seats are elected using plurality and the remainder from list proportional systems.

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In the Electoral College system, each state gets a certain number of electors based on its total number of representatives in Congress. Each elector casts one electoral vote following the general election; there are a total of electoral votes.

How to secure the US electoral system - TechRepublic