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Peter Bakke Running Head: Based upon upper echelon and information processing theories, the researchers hypothesized that five CEO characteristics age, tenure, education, international experience, and duality - that is, CEO also as board chairman were significant moderating effects upon international firm performance.
Using regression analyses, the researchers concluded that four of the predictors, excluding CEO tenure, had a significant moderating effect upon firm performance.
The rationale for the study was described by the researchers as a need to analyze CEO characteristic attributes because such CEO predictors had not been addressed in previous studies of internationalization and firm performance.
Therefore, this study appeared to fill a gap in the literature. The three authors seemed to be a well-balanced team to tackle this particular academic issue.
They individually had well-suited combinations of experience in finance, risk management, and international business. Literature Review The literature review was extensive and was broken down logically into two main sections: The 88 references for this relatively small study seemed to be excessive, so there is a concern that the authors may have been making up for a lack of recent relevant articles by citing an abundance of older articles and studies.
This could have been driven by the perceived gap in the literature, which is frequently seen in this kind of situation. Breaking new ground in a well-documented topic sometimes has to be performed without the support of recent academic journal articles.
It seemed more appropriate that the focus upon internationalization would be better applied to larger enterprises which would be better suited for this CEO study because larger organizations would logically have more abundant resources of all kinds and more experienced CEOs who could better internationalize their businesses versus the small and medium enterprises analyzed by this study.
However, one must realize that Taiwan is a small island nation which must perforce rely upon many international partners for resources, commerce, and labor. The six hypotheses stated in the study appeared to be logically driven by the identified gap in the academic literature.
The only possible bias in the approach of the Running Head: At a minimum, the results of this study, if truly applicable to the larger population represented by the sample, have the potential to make many aging Asian CEOs, and their boards, uncomfortable.
Another bias in the study sample is that the companies are all publicly-held companies, therefore private companies were excluded from the sample — presumably because it was a convenience sample.
Comparable data for private companies is difficult to obtain. Financial data for the companies was obtained from the Taiwan Economic Journal Databank and CEO demographic data was manually gathered from company reports.
Any companies that lacked any of the required data were removed from the study sample. Field suggested that for a regression study, the minimum Running Head: Therefore the minimum sample size for the regression was met. Because the data was gathered from public sources, no IRB intervention was necessary in the data gathering process.
There are no apparent ethical concerns about the study, particularly since the data was randomly selected and anonymous in nature.
There is no individually identifiable CEO information in the dataset.
The authors addressed several concerns of a regression study. They used a generalized least squares GLS regression method to address the problem of cross- sectional heteroskedasticity and within-unit serial correlation.
The Hausman test was used to determine that there were no significant correlations between independent variables. The authors did mention that all variance inflation factors VIF values were well under the benchmark of Also, it was not clear that all variables were continuous.
For example, the education variable was encoded using a Likert scale between 1 elementary and 7 PhD. These values can be seen as continuous when averaged across all cases, but are not a continuous variable, per se.
There was also concern on the part of this reviewer that there Running Head: The authors had to use seven regression models to determine the effects of their predictors.
Results section Descriptive statistics mean, standard deviationcorrelations, and significance p values were provided for all variables.Journal club presentations provide a forum through which hematology trainees keep abreast of new developments in hematology and engage in informal discussion and interaction.
Furthermore, honing presentation skills and mastering the ability to critically appraise .
AMA Format Citation Generator for Journal Article for Student Papers. Being a student comes with a lot of good times, meeting new people, learning new things and gathering great experiences. Dec 08, · How to Write an Article Review.
An article review is both a summary and an evaluation of another writer's article. Start your review by referring to the title and author of the article, the title of the journal, and the year of publication in the first paragraph. "It was thorough, yet succinct. The step-by-step format is 90%().
Note: Many of the pages are now available in printer friendly PDF format.
Look for the link on the top each page below the title. Basic Rules for Citing a Journal Article. Include up to 7 authors names in reference list (p. APA manual 6th ed.) Capitalize the first word of the article title . How to Cite a Journal on a Database in APA APA style does not require Database information in its citations.
You would cite the source found within the Database, such as a journal article or a photograph.