October 2, - 6 years 1 month ago Edit Empire:
Kosovo Bosnia And Kosovo Kosovo Crisis Serbia Albania Balkans Since the collapse of the Soviet Empire inthe world has gone through a final massive wave of democratization in Europe, which was highlighted by the fact Road to independence many countries finally gained long sought independence and autonomy.
Sudden change of governments resulted in increased tensions, economic meltdowns and violence in some cases, due to the ideological differences of the many groups within the European population.
People who had been denied basic human rights and the ability to voice their opinions were finally granted such rights as the states were moving at a full speed towards free and representative democratic systems.
The response from the international community was not single sided: For many years, the territory that comprises Kosovo has been a disputed territory between Serbia and Albania. The history of Kosovo dates back to 4th century BC, when it was the territory of Thraco-Illyrian tribe, which was subsequently conquered by Rome in s BC.
Then it was absorbed by Bulgarian Empire in s and experienced significant Slavic and Christian migration. The republic of Kosovo formally was created in by Joseph Tito and in it was given status of the autonomous republic, which gave it similar rights as the states that existed within the Yugoslavia.
As the former Yugoslavian republics were breaking away from Yugoslavia, Kosovo remained a part of Serbia, which just exacerbated the nationalist calls for the independence. Hundreds of years of Kosovo history is an example of the long quest for independence of the small Albanian enclave within continental Europe, which faces an uncertain future in light of the complete denial of its independence on the part of Serbia, which still regards Kosovo as a part of Serbia.
The way that the international community will go about such issue would be a determinant for the future attempts of secession on the part of many territories that are under the rule of one or another state right now. Eighteen years earlier Kosovo declared independence which was only recognized by Albania while Serbia still considered Kosovo a part of itself.
That failed attempt to declare independence was partially instigated by the reduction in autonomy level by the Milosevic regime, which basically gave Serbian minority in Kosovo an apartheid type of regime. Albanians in Kosovo were treated like second class citizens and had fewer rights than Serbs due to the pressure from its southern neighbor.
Albanians in Kosovo had been practicing peaceful resistance to Serbian oppression, however with the emergence of the Kosovo Liberation Army the hostilities were becoming more bloody resulting in Road to independence from both sides. Kosovo War lasted from and was ended by the day NATO bombing campaign which resulted in creation of UN peacekeeping force that was supposed to preserve peace, rebuild Kosovo and slowly begin negotiations on the final status of Kosovo.
UN Special Envoy Martti Ahtisaari has been one of the leading negotiators in the Kosovo conflicthowever much of his efforts were undone by opposition from Serbia and Russia which were against granting any kind of independence to Kosovo.
Serbia and its ally in the Security Council, Russia, protested the plan which put serious doubts that Kosovo would ever achieve independence on the international level.
Local Albanians in Kosovo were calling the parliament to announce the independence itself without waiting for the international actors to agree on the terms of the proposed independence for Kosovo.
Political life in the republic of Kosovo has been highlighted by shifts in governments due to election results, indictment of some of political leader for war crimes, and the death of President Rugova in January The biggest challenge ahead would be centered on including Serbian minority in the decision making process in Kosovo, because due to the results of the last elections Serbs refused to vote and abstained from the elections.
The government of Kosovo would have to incorporate that part of the population in the legislative process to show that the age of hostilities between Albanians and Serbs is over. It is important to point out that 20 seats out of the that comprise the legislative branch in Kosovo are allocated for the minority representation, however in order for Kosovo to become a full functioning democracygovernment needs to institute the system of free and fair elections where any candidate that wishes to run for office could have a chance of winning.
Albanian candidate should not have any advantage over Serbian ones because it would be a counterproductive measure in relation to the goal of the unification of different ethnic groups within Kosovo.
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The first legislative acts and proposed Constitution would have to be very carefully drafted because they would be setting the state for the Kosovo three branches of government, which should not favor the dominant ethnic group but would promote the benefits of the democratic system, where the votes of the population would influence the policies of the government.
This move on the part of Serbian minority shows that there are differences between the two ethnic groups that are not reconciled yet and that a lot of work lies ahead before Kosovo can become a full functioning democratic state. Such task would not be an easy one due to the overwhelming Albanian majority that controls Kosovo, however such fact should not be a motivator for setting up a system where Albanians would dominate the Serb minority which would create internal instability, as well as instigate Serbia to intrude in the internal affairs of Kosovo by using the kin-state diaspora argument.
The wars of the Yugoslavian succession were some of the most violent and brutal wars of independence within the former communist republics, to which Kosovo was a party. However, for prosperous economy to emerge, Kosovo needs to start developing internally by investing in its own infant industries, which would allow it to start exporting and generating capital inflow into the country.
One of such goods that Kosovo could start exporting is natural minerals that are of abundance in the Kosovo territory, however the machinery and equipment is very outdated, preventing Kosovars from quickly taking advantage of it.
The government needs to work with international organizations like World Bank so that private investors will see that Kosovo is a safe and smart place to invest. Capital inflow is very crucial, especially for the developing state, because it allows the state to develop enterprise that otherwise would not be developed or be developed at a slower rate due to the monetary problems.
In any state, whether it is newly independent or has been sovereign for centuries, issues of social policy and social protection are vital to the continuing function of the state, because the population of the state needs to be taken care of for the political process to be stable.
Kosovo, being put under the direct supervision of the United Nations, have faced with the fact that local politicians and activists are absent from the process of policy making and international organization have the dominant say.
In his research Fred Cocozzelli, professor from St. John's University, points out the fact that: With external actors taking the lead in such things as determining the Social Assistance qualification criteria, and drafting the relevant legislation, domestic actors gained almost no experience in the practice of social policy negotiation in a liberal democratic context.
The support of the international political and social organizations carries an immense value to the newly proclaimed state; however the local politicians need to gradually assume the duties and responsibilities of running an effective social policymaking.
Similar to the challenges associated with the formation of succesful social policy, Kosovo faces a delicate and intricate problem of how to deal with ethnic minorities within the province. Serbian minorities have historically benefitted from the support of their mother-state to the south, however now that Albanians are in charge of the province they need to show that they are looking towards reconciliation and future development on an equal playing field.The Road to Independence, an animated movie, is one of them.
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Fanie is an Adult Education Practitioner and for more than a decade, presenter of the programme, “Leefwêreld van die Gestremde” on RSG, as well as on many Community Radio Stations in heartoftexashop.com://heartoftexashop.com