Posted on April 19, by sdonline The hegemonic power of capital sometime visible, sometimes invisible propagates an increasing gravitation to English as the common global language. The spread of English seems to be analogous to the spread of capitalism. Within the United States the country most responsible for the global expansion of capital, following in the footsteps of imperial Britain resides the largest population of native English-speakers of any country. Recently, Iowa became the twenty-fourth state to mandate English as its official language.
The spread of English as an international language all across the globe has raised issues that need to be taken into account seriously as they affect all aspects of human activity from language in education to international relations. To most, learning English as an international language for the purpose of fulfilling communicative needs is a big threat to national, cultural and even religious identities as learning an international language causes people to lose their own language which is the carrier of all their cultural values- identity.
In this paper different reasons are presented to support the claim that learning EIL not only provides the opportunities for social mobility and modernity but also eliminates the probability of losing the national language — the carrier of identity- by helping people to be identified to the whole world as they are given voices.
To survive language loss which is also identity loss, getting involved in international interactions and communications is required. Therefore, to be an active participant in global relations necessitates learning the international language, i. Learning an international language provides opportunities for people to make contributions to the formation and development of that language which, in turn, lead to scientific and cultural independence.
Language loss, Identity, and English as an international language 1. Introduction Language is inextricably linked with identity and in order to save identity, we must attempt to save our language.
Norton states that every time language learners speak, they are not only exchanging information with their interlocutors, they are also constantly organizing and reorganizing a sense of who they are and how they relate to the social world.
According to different studies one of the sources of language loss which is also identity loss is the dominance of international languages. Now the question is whether learning an international language result in language loss.
In this paper I attempt to clarify the main reasons for language loss. Lack of access to power which is also lack of voice and not being able to explore the materialistic and nonmaterialistic potentialities properly are the two main reasons of language loss.
Now, learning an international language results in gaining a voice through which people can convey their messages and share any improvement in the world.
The second reason European Journal of Social Sciences — Volume 21, Number 4 is that people need to exploit and explore all the possibilities in order to have something to say to the whole world through their language, in other words, to contribute to the world storehouse of information.
In order to explore the potentialities properly, people need to communicate extensively and to be an active international participant, gaining the international language which is the useful tool is required. Therefore acquiring the international language- that is English- leads to language maintenance which is also identity maintenance.
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It is explained that linguistic items are not only the characteristics of groups or communities; they are themselves the means by which individuals both identify themselves and identify with others.
Gumperz believes that language not only creates identity for its speakers but also identifies their social group membership.
In the South African context, the apartheid regime used language as one of the yardsticks, besides skin color, to develop its divide-and rule ideology against the black population. Studies of language and identity have traditionally focused on how individuals or groups maintain, construct, project or negotiate their social identities in and through linguistic practices.
Even it is possible for a language to carry multiple identities especially in context where people have social and cultural values they themselves create and at the same time are exposed to those social and cultural values they have no choice to avoid and; consequently become part of their identity.
Gumperz assigns identity to language by distinguishing between we-code, on the one hand, and they-code, on the other. He defines they-code as the language of socioeconomic development, the language used for more formal, less personal out-group relations, and we-code as the language of the home and family relations, the language one uses for informal activities and for interaction with in- group members.
Identification theory deals with a deep psychological relationship between the individual and her or his social environment and the internalization of social attitudes.
It includes human sentiments, human attitudes and human loyalty from the psychological point of view without marginalizing or denying socio-economic or political factors. Norton states that every time language learners speak, they are not only exchanging information with their interlocutors, they are also constantly shaping and reshaping a sense of who they are and how they relate to the social world.
They are, in other words, engaged in identity construction theoretically, identity is defined as reference to how people understand their relationship to the world, how that relationship is constructed across time and space, and how people understand their possibilities for the future.
Bourdieu focuses on the relationship between identity and symbolic power, and argues that the value ascribed to speech cannot be understood from the person who speaks and the person who speaks can not be understood apart from larger networks of social relationships- many of which may be unequally structured.
Most authors point out that identity constructs and is constructed by language use and notions of ethnicity and social identity are inextricably linked. Inseparability of language and culture is conceived as language encompasses in and of itself acts of identity. Most authors not that identity construction must be understood with respect to larger social processes, marked by relation of power that can be either coercive or collaborative.
Joseph states that language and identity are actually inseparable, so a change in identity is inherent in any change to bilingualism. Widdowson states that a particular language gets differently actualized over a period by communities adapting it to their changing needs. If these communities want to assert European Journal of Social Sciences — Volume 21, Number 4 their own independent identity, they will gradually create their own norms dissociated from previous coding conventions.
They will be oriented inwards rather than outwards, and their actual language ceases to be exonormative as a dialect and becomes endonormative as a separate language.
And once a community invests its separate social identity in its language in this way, conditions are naturally created for it to become different as a virtual resource.
Language is a central feature of human identity. When we hear someone speak, we immediately make guesses about his or her gender, education level, age, profession, and place of origin.
Beyond this individual matter, a language is a powerful symbol of national and ethnic identity Spolskycited in Block, Language is a necessity for communication but with more languages on the verge of disappearing, something has to be done.
About 6, languages are bound to be extinct, due to the loss of native speakers, integration of other similar languages and because more people prefer to use the more dominant languages.
The Influx of New Languages and Its Dangers to the Extinction of the English Language PAGES 8. WORDS 1, View Full Essay. More essays like this: Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. Exactly what I needed.
- Jenna Kraig, student @ UCLA. Wow. Most helpful essay resource ever! Sep 17, · That happens because the language gets subsumed into ‘the common language.’ If you have 10 people gathering to talk, and 8 of them speak x, and 10 speak y, x will prevail, with a bit of y.
Below 8/10, y prevails. Introduction. The discourse regarding the effects of globalization on cultural diversity is a challenging debate. The advancement of technology dissolves international boundaries and opens cultures to a whole new arena (Smith, ), enabling globalization to occur.
Globalization can be an empowering entity. English. Szolgáltatásaink its first 25 years of existence "Conceptual Social Ecology" presents a number of The advantages and the introduction of new weapons during the first world war of coral reefs nonprofits and for-profits in this topic from the Free Management Library the influx of new languages and its dangers to the extinction.
Many tribes have the will to revitalize their languages, but urgently need a substantial influx of funding, training, and technical support to produce new fluent speakers. Research shows that language revitalization is a key empowerment tool for Native American communities.